ceturtdiena, 2012. gada 19. aprīlis

Žans Anrī Rizeners

Žans Anrī Rizeners (angl. Jean-Henri Riesener, vāc. Johann Heinrich Riesener; 1734-1806). Dzimis Vācijā, strādāja Parīzē, Luija XV galma meistars ebenists (ébéniste). Ž. Rizeneru uzskata par vienu no klasicisma stila aizsācējiem. Viņš kļuva slavens 1769. gadā, kad parakstīja Luija XV biroju, ko bija sācis gatavot jau viņa skolotājs, gadsimta vidū populārais Ž. Obēns (Jean Francois Oeben), kurš 1765. gadā mira. Šajā laikā biroja forma bija gatava, pabeigts koka karkass un pēc skulptora Diplesī (Joseph Duplessis) modeļa izgatavoti bronzas rotājumi. Rizeners izgatavoja inkrustācijas un biroja iekšpusē uzstādīja mehānismu, kas paceļ tā cilindrisko vāku. Tas vēl bija pārejas periods, bet minētā biroja forma kļuva populāra. Vēlāk Rizenera darbnīcā turpināja izgatavot lieliskas klasicisma stila mēbeles. Apdares precizitātes un izsmalcinātības ziņā ar tām ar sacensties tikai D.Rentgena (David Roentgen) darinājumi. Rizenera agrīnajiem darbiem raksturīgas bagātīgi izstrādātas bronzas joslas, režģīši, rozetes ar gredzeniem uz atvilktnēm.
Iespējams, ka Rizeners pirmais Francijas mēbeļu modē ieviesa sarkankoku, kad 1780-tajos gados sākās viņa daiļrades otrais posms. Finierēšanai Rizeners izvēlējās gaišu sarkankoku zeltainos toņos, ko ieveda no Sandomingo, no Antiļu salām (XIX gs. modē būs tumšs sarkankoks). Uz šāda fona lieliski izskatījās smalki zeltītas bronzas rotājumi, kuru vijās sakārtotos rožu un neļķu ziedus gribas aplūkot ar palielināmo stiklu. Tā kā Rizeners dzīvoja un strādāja Arsenālā – uz karalim piederošas zemes, viņš varēja neievērot korporācijas statūtus. Rīzenera darbi bija ļoti dārgi, viņš bija bagāts un pats izvēlējās bronzas meistarus.  Rizenera darbības pēdējam periodam raksturīga sekretera – rakstāmgalda forma, kas atgādina šauru skapīti ar atvāžamu priekšējo plati, kura veido rakstāmvirsmu.


Жан Анри Ризенер (англ. Jean-Henri Riesener , нем. Johann Heinrich Riesener; 1734-1806). Немец по происхождению, работал во Франции, придворный мастер Людовика XV. Прославился в 1769 году, поставив свою подпись на знаменитом бюро, начатом еще его учителем Ж. Б. Обеном (Jean Francois Oeben). В дальнейшем из мастерской Ризенера выходили великолепные образцы классической мебели. С 1769 года поставлял мебель для Короны (Garde-Meuble de la Couronne), в 1774 году награждён официальной должностью «Королевского краснодеревщика» (Ebeniste ordinaire du roi) и выступил автором одних из самых богатых мебельных образцов стиля Людовика XVI-го, получая за свои работы более 100 000 ливров в год. Вместе с Давидом Рентгеном (David Roentgen) (1743-1807) делил лавры любимого краснодеревщика королевы Марии-Антуанетты (Marie-Antoinette d,Autriche), а также графа Прованского (Comte de Provence), графа д,Артуа (Comte d,Artois), герцогов Пентьевр (Penthievre), Ларошфуко (La Rochefoucauld), Шуазель-Праслен (Choiseul-Praslin) и Бирон (Biron).Ввел во Франции моду на красное дерево, начав в 1780-х годах покрывать предметы фанерой. В отличие от темного тона красного дерева XIX века, применял светлое с золотистым оттенком, привозившееся из Сан-Доминго, с Антильских островов. На этом фоне нежно выделяется тончайшая золоченая бронза. Для его поздних произведений характерна форма секретера - письменного стола в виде узкого шкафчика с откидной передней доской, образующей столешницу.Широко использовал методы фигурного маркетри (marquetry) в дополнение к золочёной бронзе, а также сложные механизмы, близко контактировал с другими мастерами гильдии, такими как Лакруа (Roger Vandercruse Lacroix) (1728-1799) и Мартен Карлен (Martin Carlin) (1730-1785). Завершил работу над знаменитым Королевским бюро (Bureau du Roi), начатую Обеном в 1760 году, в 1774 году представил комод для королевской спальни в Версале (Versailles). Когда в 1784 году Франция оказалась на грани банкротства, Двор вынужден был в целях экономии обратиться к услугам менее дорогих поставщиков, таких как Гийом Бенеман (Guillaume Beneman) (1750-1811), но королева оставалась верна только Ризенеру. Во время Революции активно скупал по смехотворным ценам мебель своего производства, но впоследствие не смог её продать по причине изменения вкусов и проживал в сравнительной бедности. В 1794 году по приказу Директории (Directoire) занимался удалением «знаков феодализма» с мебели и интерьеров Версальского дворца, в 1801 году вышел в отставку. Умер 6 января 1806 года в Париже в возрасте 71 года. Был женат на Франсуазе-Маргарите Вандеркрузе (Francoise-Marguerite Vandercruse) (1731-1775), от которой имел сына Анри-Франсуа (Henri-Francois Riesener) (1767-1828), знаменитого художника-портретиста. Портрет мастера, написанный в 1785 году живописцем Антуаном Вестье (Antoine Vestier) (1740-1824), является достоянием Версальского дворца (Chateau de Versailles).

Commode. Jean-Henri Riesener c.1776-1780 Victoria and Albert Museum, London
Commode. Jean-Henri Riesener c.1776-1780
Victoria and Albert Museum, London 
Žans Anrī Rizeners (angl. Jean-Henri Riesener, vāc. Johann Heinrich Riesener; 1734-1806).

Žans Anrī Rizeners (angl. Jean-Henri Riesener,


Jean-Henri Riesener and Jean-François Oeben. Bureau du Roi (Secrétaire à cylindre de Louis XV) in the Cabinet intérieur du Petit Appartement, Château de Versailles. 1760-1769
Jean-Henri Riesener and Jean-François Oeben.
Bureau du Roi (Secrétaire à cylindre de Louis XV) in the Cabinet intérieur du Petit Appartement,
Château de Versailles. 1760-1769






Jean Henri Riesener, Secrétaire à cylindre  Boudoir de la reine Marie-Antoinette. Fontainebleau, 1786 Acier, bronze doré, nacre
Jean Henri Riesener, Secrétaire à cylindre
Boudoir de la reine Marie-Antoinette. Fontainebleau, 1786
Acier, bronze doré, nacre
Musée du Château de Fontainebleau
Desk  attributed to Jean-Henri Riesener, c. 1775-80,   Oak, purplewood, mahogany, casuarina wood, holly, boxwood and sycamore, with gilt bronze mounts. Purchased by George IV at the George Watson Taylor sale, on 1825 for £107.  Royal Collection , UK
Desk  attributed to Jean-Henri Riesener, c. 1775-80,
Oak, purplewood, mahogany, casuarina wood, holly, boxwood and sycamore, with gilt bronze mounts.
Purchased by George IV at the George Watson Taylor sale, on 1825 for £107.
Royal Collection , UK

A small writing table by Jean-Henri Riesener made for Marie Antoinette 1780-1785
A small writing table by Jean-Henri Riesener made for Marie Antoinette 1780-1785







Jean-Henri RIESENER  Roll-top desk
Secrétaire à cylindre (cylinder desk)  1784
Oak frame; solid acajou moucheté (fiddleback mahogany); acajou moucheté veneer; gilded bronze
Stamp of Jean-Henri Riesener
Musée du Louvre, Paris



Jean-Henri RIESENER  Roll-top desk  1769 Wallace Collection, London, United Kingdom

Roll-top desk 1769
Oak veneered with various wood, gilt-bronze mounts, height 140 cm
Wallace Collection, London
Jean-Henri Riesener Roll-top desk (detail) 1769 Wallace Collection, London, United Kingdom
Roll-top desk 1769



Jean-Henri RIESENER  Drop-front secretaire  1783

Drop-front secretaire
 This secretaire was supplied by Riesener on 8 March 1783
 for Marie-Antoinette’s use at the Petit Trianon, Versailles.
Veneered oak, height 139 cm
Wallace Collection, London

Jean-Henri Riesener Console-Desserte 1785
1785
Жан Анри Ризенер Attributed to Jean-Henri Riesener  French, Paris, about 1785  Oak veneered with ebony; set with panels of Japanese lacquer; gilt bronze mounts; black marble top
Attributed to Jean-Henri Riesener  French, Paris, about 1785
Oak veneered with ebony; set with panels of Japanese lacquer; gilt bronze mounts; black marble top
J. Paul Getty Museum,  Los Angeles



Although researchers cannot find the Getty Museum's secrétaire listed in the royal inventories, it is of the same caliber as other pieces made for Marie-Antoinette and the French court. The mounts are finely chased in their smallest details, and the construction of the piece is of high quality. 


Jean-Henri Riesener, small table  Paris, Louis XVI period, between 1786 and 1788.
1786 - 1788.
Attributed to Jean-Henri Riesener c.1774-93  Royal Collection , UK
Attributed to Jean-Henri Riesener c.1774-93
Royal Collection , UK
Chest-of-drawers (commode), c.1774  Louis XVI, made for the Chambre du Roi, Versailles, 1774; sold 1794; George Taylor; his sale Christie's, London,  1825; bought by Robert Fogg for George IV (56 guineas).
Chest-of-drawers (commode), c.1774
Louis XVI, made for the Chambre du Roi, Versailles, 1774; sold 1794; George Taylor; his sale Christie's, London,  1825; bought by Robert Fogg for George IV (56 guineas).
Royal Collection , UK 

Royal Collection , UK

Pair of corner cupboards c.1780
Royal Collection , UK
Bureau à cylindre (cylinder desk)  Jean-Henri RIESENER 1784  made for the Cabinet Intérieur of Marie-Antoinette’s Petit Appartement at the Palais des Tuileries;  Château de Saint-Cloud
Bureau à cylindre (cylinder desk)
Jean-Henri RIESENER 1784
made for the Cabinet Intérieur of Marie-Antoinette’s Petit Appartement at the Palais des Tuileries;
Château de Saint-Cloud
Musée du Louvre, Paris





Cylinder desk, Jean Henri Riesener, 1768
Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisboa, Portugal


Commode with pastoral trophy 1784  Oak frame; sycamore and kingwood veneer; polychrome wood marquetry; gilded bronze; Griotte Rouge marble  Jean-Henri RIESENER
 Commode with pastoral trophy 1784
Oak frame; sycamore and kingwood veneer; polychrome wood marquetry; gilded bronze; 

Griotte Rouge marble Jean-Henri RIESENER 
Musée du Louvre, Paris

Five-drawer commode  Jean-Henri RIESENER  Stamped with the mark of Ferdinand BURY  Musée du Louvre, Paris
Five-drawer commode
Jean-Henri RIESENER
Stamped with the mark of Ferdinand BURY
Musée du Louvre, Paris

Night table 1784
Musée du Louvre, Paris


Žans Anrī Rizeners
1780-1783

Žans Anrī Rizeners
1785-1790

Mechanical table, 1778  Oak veneered with bois satiné (bloodwood), holly, black stained holly, amaranth, berberis, stained sycamore, and green lacquered wood, gilt-bronze mounts,
Mechanical table, 1778
Oak veneered with bois satiné (bloodwood), holly, black stained holly, amaranth, berberis, stained sycamore, and green lacquered wood, gilt-bronze mounts,
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

The inventory number painted underneath the top allows this table to be identified as the one delivered by Riesener for use of Queen Marie Antoinette to the Château of Versailles in 1778.
The inventory number painted underneath the top allows this table to be identified as the one delivered by Riesener for use of Queen Marie Antoinette to the Château of Versailles in 1778.


Жан Анри Ризенер (англ. Jean-Henri Riesener , нем. Johann Heinrich Riesener; 1734-1806)






Žans Anrī Rizeners Jewel casket on a stand, veneered with mahogany, sycamore, and purplewood, by Jean-Henri Riesener, c. 1780; in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
Jewel casket on a stand,
Jean-Henri Riesener, c. 1780
veneered with mahogany, sycamore, and purplewood
 Victoria and Albert Museum, London.


Žans Anrī Rizeners

Jean-Henri Riesener , Drop-front secretary
Secretary (secrétaire à abattant), 1783
Oak veneered with ebony and black and gold Japanese lacquer, tulipwood, holly and black stained holly,
amaranth, gilt-bronze mounts, white marble
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Ordered from Riesener together with a matching commode and encoignure (corner cabinet) for use in Queen Marie Antoinette's cabinet intérieur at Versailles in 1783, the secretary and the commode were sent several years later to the Château of Saint Cloud.
Ordered from Riesener together with a matching commode and encoignure (corner cabinet) for use in Queen Marie Antoinette's cabinet intérieur at Versailles in 1783, the secretary and the commode were sent several years later to the Château of Saint Cloud. 

Жан Анри Ризенер (англ. Jean-Henri Riesener , нем. Johann Heinrich Riesener; 1734-1806)

Secretary (secrétaire à abattant), 1783 mounts have been attributed to Pierre Gouthière (1732–1813), the most famous Parisian bronzeworker
Secretary (secrétaire à abattant), 1783
mounts have been attributed to Pierre Gouthière (1732–1813),
the most famous Parisian bronzeworker



Žans Anrī Rizeners (angl. Jean-Henri Riesener, vāc. Johann Heinrich Riesener; 1734-1806)


Commode Jean-Henri Riesener, 1783, In center of frieze, in bronze gilt: MA (monogram of Marie Antoinette); on back of commode, branded: crowned MA within legend GARDE MEUBLE DE LA REINE; under marble top, stenciled: inventory mark of the Château de Saint-Cloud.
Commode Jean-Henri Riesener, 1783,
In center of frieze, in bronze gilt: MA (monogram of Marie Antoinette);
on back of commode, branded: crowned MA within legend GARDE MEUBLE DE LA REINE;
under marble top, stenciled: inventory mark of the Château de Saint-Cloud.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York



Table, Side (Commode Servante or Commode Desserte) Jean-Henri Riesener,  ca. 1790, Anichkov Palace, St. Petersburg, Russia (Czarina Maria Feodorovna) Empress Maria Feodorovna
Table, Side (Commode Servante or Commode Desserte) Jean-Henri Riesener,  ca. 1790,
Anichkov Palace, St. Petersburg, Russia (Czarina Maria Feodorovna) Empress Maria Feodorovna
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York




Mechanical Table Jean-Henri Riesener, 1781, Château de Versailles and Château de Saint Cloud, France Marie Antoinette, Queen of France
Mechanical Table Jean-Henri Riesener, 1781,
Château de Versailles and Château de Saint Cloud, France Marie Antoinette, Queen of France
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York






Commode  Jean-Henri Riesener, ca. 1780–90,  Oak, veneered with mahogany, gilt-bronze mounts, marble top
Commode  Jean-Henri Riesener, ca. 1780–90,
 Oak, veneered with mahogany, gilt-bronze mounts, marble top
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York


Žans Anrī Rizeners kumode





Table chiffonière en auge,
Estampille de Jean-Henri Riesener, 1788
Musée Des Arts Décoratifs, Paris 

ean-Henri Riesener, 1782 inlaid woods, bronze, and marble -  for Marie Antoinette's private apartments at Marly. Château de Versailles
 Jean-Henri Riesener, 1782
inlaid woods, bronze, and marble -  for Marie Antoinette's private apartments at Marly.
Château de Versailles
Jean-Henri Riesener,  'A commode for Marie-Antoinette' (1780), her cabinet intérieur, Versailles   The Wallace Collection, London
Jean-Henri Riesener,
'A commode for Marie-Antoinette' (1780), her cabinet intérieur, Versailles
 The Wallace Collection, London




Chest-of-drawers, Jean-Henri Riesener, c. 1782 Oak veneered with mahogany, stringings of ebony and box, gilt bronze, brocatello marble top, steel locks and key
Chest-of-drawers, Jean-Henri Riesener, c. 1782
Oak veneered with mahogany, stringings of ebony and box, gilt bronze, brocatello marble top
The Wallace Collection, London

Corner-cupboard Jean-Henri Riesener, 1783 Oak, veneered with thuya burr, amaranth and sycamore, oak panel lining inside door, fixed oak shelf, gilt bronze, brass screws, statuary marble
Corner-cupboard Jean-Henri Riesener, 1783
Oak, veneered with thuya burr, amaranth and sycamore, oak panel lining inside door,
fixed oak shelf, gilt bronze, brass screws, statuary marble
The Wallace Collection, London

Cupboard in mahogany veneer and solid mahogany with rounded corners.
It has two full doors and is decorated with fluted pilasters. It stands on straight legs.
The top is in white marble with an ogee edging.
Stamp: Jean-Henri Riesener
former Delplace collection

Žana Anrī Rizenera kumode Rundāles pilī, Latvijā,  Jean Henri Rizener, Rundale Palace, Latvia
Žana Anrī Rizenera kumode Rundāles pilī, Latvijā, japāņu lakas gleznojums, zeltīta bronza. Francija.  18. gs. 80. gadi.  

Жан Анри Ризенер, Рундальский дворец, Латвия

Jean Henri Rizener, Rundale Palace, Latvia

1775 Château de Chantilly 
Jewel cabinet 1787, Jean-Henri Riesener (cabinet maker) François Rémond (1747-1812) (bronze maker),  Royal Collection Trust, UK
Jewel cabinet 1787, Jean-Henri Riesener (cabinet maker)
François Rémond (1747-1812) (bronze maker),
Royal Collection Trust, UK
1768


Console-desserte Jean-Henri Riesener Marie-Antoinette d'Autriche
Console-desserte
Marie-Antoinette
Paris, Versailles 
The Cabinet Doré of Marie-Antoinette, with the desk made by Jean-Henri Riesener in 1783. Seats by Georges Jacob.
The Cabinet Doré of Marie-Antoinette,
with the desk made by Jean-Henri Riesener in 1783.
Seats by Georges Jacob.
Palace of Versailles

Commode
Marie-Antoinette
Paris, Versailles 


Attributed to Jean-Henri Riesener
Attributed to Jean-Henri Riesener


Marie-Antoinette's Secretaire,1780
Oak, sycamore, amaranth, tulipwood, burr walnut, ebony, marble, gilt bronze, brass and leather
The Wallace Collection, London
Secretaire Jean-Henri Riesener (1734 - 1806) France 1783 Oak, veneered with thuya-wood, amaranth, sycamore, stringings of ebony and box, Carrara marble, gilt bronze and brass
Secretaire Jean-Henri Riesener, 1783
Oak, veneered with thuya-wood, amaranth, sycamore, stringings of ebony and box,
Carrara marble, gilt bronze and brass
The Wallace Collection, London


Toilet and writing-table Attributed to Jean-Henri Riesener (1734 - 1806) France 1780 - 1784
Toilet and writing-table
Attributed to Jean-Henri Riesener , France 1780 - 1784
The Wallace Collection, London
Writing table with two drawers, Riesener, Jean-Henri, ca. 1785-1790 (made), Veneered in burr mahogany, rosewood, boxwood and stained sycamore, on a carcase of oak and pine; set with gilt bronze mounts and porcelain plaques
Writing table with two drawers,
Riesener, Jean-Henri, ca. 1785-1790 (made),
Veneered in burr mahogany, rosewood, boxwood and stained sycamore, on a carcase of oak and pine; s
et with gilt bronze mounts and porcelain plaques
Victoria and Albert Museum, London 



Riesener, Jean-Henri (possibly, made by),  Oeben, Jean-François (probably, designer) This table top was delivered to the Petit Trianon, Versailles in 1776 for the use of Marie Antoinette in her study
Marquetry panel, 1776
Riesener, Jean-Henri (possibly, made by),
Oeben, Jean-François (probably, designer)
This table top was delivered to the Petit Trianon, Versailles in 1776 for the use of Marie Antoinette in her study
 Victoria and Albert Museum, London 



Made by J.H. Riesener and delivered on  1773 for use in the apartment of P.E. de Fontanieu
Low cupboard
Made by J.H. Riesener and delivered on  1773 for use in the apartment of P.E. de Fontanieu
Victoria and Albert Museum, London

The cupboard was altered by Riesener in 1784, but its present conformation as a shallow
cupboard must have been the work of a 19th century cabinet-maker.
Originally part of a corner cupboard (encoignure) supplied
by Jean-Henri Riesener 1773 for Monsieur Fontanieu
Writing desk with a raised back, Jean-Henri Riesener, c. 1775
Writing desk with a raised back, c. 1775
Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Roll-top desk, Attributed to Jean-Henri Riesener, France, c. 1785.
The Wallace Collection
Roll-top desk Attributed to Jean-Henri Riesener (1734 - 1806) France c. 1785
Roll-top desk
Attributed to Jean-Henri Riesener, c. 1785
The Wallace Collection, London


Secretaire, Attributed to Jean-Henri Riesener, France, 1780 - 1784.
The Wallace Collection
The Wallace Collection, London
Secretaire
Attributed to Jean-Henri Riesener 1780 - 1784
The Wallace Collection, London